How class teams can improve student work on sub days

California teacher Dave Orphal describes in this commentary how he uses a classroom structure of interdependent student teams to improve student performance and behavior on the days he has a substitute teacher. He highlights four elements of this classroom structure that are particularly relevant on such days, including assigning meaningful work and awarding extra points to or subtracting points from student teams. "My students have important concepts to learn and skills to learn every day, whether or not I'm in the room," he writes.

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