This article explores New York City's "vital organs," which lie underneath it. Vanity Fair's William Langewiesche writes about continual construction projects, subways, tunnels, cables, pipes and building foundations found below the city. "All this infrastructure was forced underground not through some grand plan that can easily be sorted out but rather through two centuries of competition and compromise as the value of New York's surface space increased and the streets grew more crowded," Langewiesche notes. "The work never stops," he writes. "Underground, it hasn't stopped in decades -- or, really, in two centuries. Every day the city beneath the city grows and deepens, an expanding universe down every entrance and manhole."
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