Transportation Secretary Mary Peters is on a mission to overhaul how the U.S. pays for its transportation infrastructure. She favors tolls based on use rather than flat fuel taxes, and that philosophy extends from highways on the ground to flight patterns in the air. Although the airline industry disagrees with her proposals to apply surface-transportation-style fees to aviation, "I think she's shown a willingness and a capacity to understand those differences," said Jim May, president and CEO of the Air Transport Association.

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