Two U.S. studies uncovered aspects of Type 1 diabetes that could lead to treatments for the condition. The first report found that raising the level of an immune-system protein called tumor necrosis factor can kill harmful CD8 T-cells -- defective immune cells that destroy insulin-generating pancreatic tissues. The other study reported that leptin -- a hormone usually found in low levels among Type 1 diabetics -- can cause another hormone called insulin-like growth factor 1 to mimic insulin and control blood-sugar levels.

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