As resources and fishing routes long buried under Arctic ice are newly exposed by global warming, so are old and largely theoretical disputes over the territory among the six nations that border the Arctic. Those countries are pledging to cooperate to resolve differences as they become increasingly relevant, such as Russian-Danish debate over the seabed under the North Pole and the degree to which Canada controls the Northwest Passage -- classified by the U.S. as international waters. Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper has criticized Russia's increasingly aggressive military exercises in the region.

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