Union Pacific has earmarked $200 million in 2010 to implement federally mandated "positive train control" technology. The railroad is advising customers about the costs. "The FRA itself calculates that the cost-to-benefit ratio is an astonishing 22-to-1, meaning that most of this huge investment will be unproductive," Jack Koraleski, executive vice president of marketing and sales, wrote in a letter to customers this past month.

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