Authorities in Shanghai formally charged four executives of Australian mining giant Rio Tinto with bribery and trade-secret infringement, prompting concern for multinational companies doing business in China. What is considered ordinary market intelligence elsewhere can be seen as bribery, espionage or corruption in China because laws governing the crimes are often vague, companies said. Risk consultants and lawyers in London said they are receiving a barrage of inquiries about what the Rio Tinto case means for them.

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