The operator of the West Virginia mine where 25 miners were killed in an explosion had been ordered by the U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration to shut down the mine or parts of it at least 60 times between 2009 and 2010. Federal regulators had previously cited Massey Energy for not clearing combustible materials or mud piles and put employees at risk of drowning by asking them to work in pools of dark water up to 48 inches deep.

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