Teacher quality has the greatest effect on English-language-learners, Bruce Fuller, an author and professor of education and public policy at the University of California, Berkeley, argues in this column. ELL students also improve slightly when they are taught in their native language and gradually learn English -- rather than learning in English-only classrooms. "A generation of work by Harvard University's Catherine Snow shows that skilled teachers who advance rich oral language in Spanish among young children, accenting awareness of sounds and grammatical patterns, are most effective at advancing English proficiency," Fuller writes.

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