A study of Texas infants with congenital heart defects found that blacks had a 32% increased risk of dying within the first five years of life compared with whites. The study in Pediatrics also found that blacks with transposition of the great arteries or tetrology of Fallot were less likely to survive compared with white counterparts, while Hispanic infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome or pulmonary valve atresia without septic defect had a higher risk of death compared with whites.

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