A study in The New England Journal of Medicine found that the rate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in the intensive care units of 153 Veterans Affairs hospitals declined by 62%, while rates in other areas including surgical and rehabilitation units decreased by 45% after implementing a bundle of steps that included screening all patients and promoting hand-washing among staff. But another study in the journal questioned the cost-effectiveness and necessity of universal screening.

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