Danish researchers wrote in the Journal of the American Medical Association that newer epilepsy drugs, including lamotrigine and oxcarbazepine, taken during pregnancy didn't elevate the risk of birth defects. They found that 3.2% of 1,532 babies born to mothers who took such medications developed a major defect, but noted that before pregnancy, many of the mothers used phenobarbital, phenytoin and other older epilepsy drugs, which have been previously linked to higher risk of birth defects.

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