An MIT study found hospitals that spend money using ICU tools and providing more staff to provide care in their emergency departments have lower mortality rates. MIT economist Joseph Doyle, in a study published in the American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, said that broader use of ICU tools and services and having more medical staff in the ER is expensive but that an increase of about $4,000 per patient in hospital expenditures leads to a 1.4 percentage-point decrease in mortality.

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