Almost 9% of children in the U.S. have been diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, according to federal data for 2007 to 2009 -- an increase from about 6.9% for the 1998 to 2000 period. The number of ADHD cases for low- and middle-income families increased about 40% and 50%, respectively, during the period. Lead researcher Dr. Lara Akinbami said the findings may be attributed to better health care access and more awareness of the condition, and "it's unlikely that most of this is due to a new epidemic of ADHD."

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