Nanotechnology poses special reliability challenges, writes University of Albany research scientist James Lloyd. Previously unknown phenomena such as electromigration, in which electrons pound and snap nanoscale wiring, need to be fully understood in order to be accounted for in design and manufacturing processes. "As we enter into other areas of the very small, new unanticipated reliability issues have become the norm and Mother Nature has not given up in finding ways to make life interesting," writes Lloyd.

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