Researchers at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory at Columbia University are investigating what lies beneath the ice sheet in eastern Antarctica. In 2008, a plane using sensing equipment detected mountain ranges and moving water buried beneath the ice. "If we want to know how the ice sheets are going to change in the future, we need to know how they are going to move. . . . So what the bottom of the ice sheet is made of really matters," researcher Robin Bell said.