Hydraulic fracturing operations in the Marcellus Shale didn't cause the 5.8-magnitude earthquake that hit Virginia in August, according to U.S. researchers. The closest active Marcellus wells were about 100 miles away from the quake's epicenter. "The kinds of pressure required to cause something like that can't be transmitted over those distances from fracking," said David Spears, a geologist with the Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy.

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