The use of fructose as a substitute for other forms of carbohydrates in diets providing similar calorie content did not appear to cause weight gain, according to an analysis published in the Annals of Internal Medicine. However, the study -- an analysis of 31 other studies -- found that participants assigned to a high-fructose diet who ate extra sugar did gain weight, suggesting that calories in general, not fructose itself, is the main culprit in weight gain.

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