Nicolas Cullen, a geographer at the University of Otago in New Zealand, has worked with a colleague to trace the shrinking of Mount Kilimanjaro's glaciers between 1912 and 2011. During a recent trip, he noted that one of the glaciers had split in half. "There is now a passage you can walk through that is ice-free for possibly the first time in 10,000 years," he said.

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