The U.S. Department of Justice is defending the use of warrantless cellphone tracking technology known as "stingray" against allegations by privacy groups and the American Civil Liberties Union that it violates Fourth Amendment rights. The Justice Department argues the location of a person's broadband card has no reasonable expectation of privacy. Meanwhile some judges have expressed concern about the technology's use under pen-register orders, circumventing warrants for probable cause. Cases are ongoing in Arizona and California.

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