Before Sematech and other industry consortia existed, there was the Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corp., a cooperative organization in Austin, Texas, set up by a dozen computer and semiconductor companies. "Austin winning the MCC was a key catalyst for much of what followed in the city’s rise as a major technology center," says David Gibson of the IC² Institute. "The public-private strategy to win the MCC was the origin of the Austin model, which led to Austin's winning 3M in 1984 and Sematech in 1988 and much that followed. MCC was the catalyst for public-private funding for 32 endowed chairs in computer science and engineering," he says.

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