The downside of being a famous brand such as J.C. Penney or Kodak is the difficulty of marketing a change, writes Al Ries. Ex-CEO Ron Johnson's attempt to move up J.C. Penney's prestige ignored Wal-Mart's 2005 failed effort, when the brand placed high-fashion supplements in Vogue. "A better approach is to keep your existing brand focused and then hammer the reason it was successful in the first place," writes Ries.

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