Scientists used somatic nuclear transfer to implant the nucleus of donor skin or fibroblast cells into egg cells from which the nucleus had been removed, enabling them to create a new type of human embryonic stem cell. The scientists incorporated caffeine into the chemical mix used during host nucleus removal and donor transplantation, and activated embryonic development using electrical pulses. The cells might be free of genetic and epigenetic abnormalities found in induced pluripotent stem cells.

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