Crystalline cellulose nanofibers are the focus of research by Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center as they pursue better ways of breaking down the nanofibers using fewer enzymes for more cost-effective biofuels. So far, researchers have found that biomass pretreatments that convert cellulose to a crystalline structure can reduce native enzyme binding while boosting sugar yields as much as fivefold.

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