A study of patients treated percutaneously with patent foramen ovale closure for secondary prevention of paradoxical embolic events found a low rate of the events after the procedure. Recurrence was largely not tied to residual shunting, with causes instead linked to comorbidities such as atherosclerosis. The authors noted that "careful patient selection is of paramount importance when evaluating the merits of PFO closure," according to the study published in Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.

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