Cities are taking different approaches to managing nonemergency 9-1-1 call traffic, which Chuck Wexler of the Police Executive Research Forum says is referred to as "the tyranny of 9-1-1." A nonemergency 3-1-1 line is used by some cities, while others respond differently to calls, depending on the nature of the emergency. Miami sends professionals known as public service aides to accidents or crime scenes where a suspect is no longer present.

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