Artificial sweeteners may raise the risk of metabolic syndrome, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and weight gain, according to Purdue University behavioral neuroscience professor Susan Swithers, who wrote an opinion article on the website of the journal Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism. Swithers, who reviewed studies on artificial sweeteners, wrote that their use can have a counter-intuitive effect that "may reflect negative consequences of interfering with learned relationships between sweet tastes and typical post-ingestive outcomes."

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