U.S. researchers have produced the highest concentration yet of the biofuel isobutanol from agricultural waste by abandoning the single-organism approach and instead combining a fungus and bacteria. "Previously people have tried to engineer one microbial species or strain to do all of these things, including biomass degradation and the fermentation for making the fuel molecules, and this has turned out to be really difficult," said Xiaoxia Nina Lin, assistant professor in the University of Michigan's chemical engineering department.

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