Hydraulic-fracturing fluid that spilled into a Kentucky creek in 2007 probably caused the death of fish belonging to several species including the endangered blackside dace, according to a federal study. The joint study by the U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service found that the fluid, which came from four wells operated by Nami Resources, contaminated the creek with chemicals and likely caused gill lesions and other physical damage to the fish. The company paid a $50,000 fine after pleading guilty in 2009 to violations of the Clean Water Act and endangered species laws.

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