About 23% of clinical trials involving 500 or more participants that are registered on the ClinicalTrials.gov database had no results available and another 6% had results available but remained unpublished five years after completion, researchers report in the journal BMJ. U.S. law requires publication within 12 months of a results summary on ClinicalTrials.gov. Failure to publish violates trial sponsors' ethical obligations to participants, and additional safeguards are needed to ensure timely publications, the researchers said.

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