The Nobel Prize for chemistry has been awarded to a trio of U.S. scientists whose computer programs revolutionized chemical research. Martin Karplus, Michael Levitt and Arieh Warshel first developed their powerful computer models in the 1970s. "Today the computer is just as important a tool for chemists as the test tube. Computer models mirroring real life have become crucial for most advances made in chemistry today," according to the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, which awards the prize.

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