Partial closure of the government has dragged down U.S. economic growth and cost at least $24 billion, according to an analysis by Standard & Poor's. Also, the shutdown is almost certain to depress future spending by those who fear a return to brinksmanship by lawmakers when fixes in the eleventh-hour compromise expire, S&P said. "The bottom line is the government shutdown has hurt the U.S. economy," the credit rating agency said.

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