Votes disapproving hydraulic fracturing in Oberlin, Ohio, and the Colorado cities of Boulder, Lafayette and Fort Collins were merely symbolic, according to local oil and gas associations. "There's definitely no shale development in the entire county, much less in the city of Oberlin," said Mike Chadsey, spokesman for the Ohio Oil and Gas Association. In Boulder and Lafayette, the last drilling was done in the 1990s, said Colorado Oil and Gas Association President Tisha Conoly Schuller.

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