Long-term use of proton pump inhibitors and histamine-2 receptor antagonists to treat acid reflux was associated with a 65% and 25% greater risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency, respectively, according to a study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association. The risk of B-12 deficiency increased with both dosage and length of usage. "Our study doesn't recommend stopping those medications, but you should take them at the lowest effective dose," study author Dr. Douglas Corley said.

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