Seeking to bridge the gap between Internet services and the pipes they run over, tech companies such as Google and Facebook are moving to increase their control over global communications infrastructure by lighting up dark fiber and investing in long-haul cable links in Europe and Asia. The moves -- which include more than 100,000 new route miles and represent a direct challenge to the telecom industry -- are part of an effort among service providers to cut overhead costs and ensure guaranteed levels of capacity by increasing their market independence.

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