Subcutaneous bumps that appear after dermal filler injections might be caused by bacteria, and treatment with steroids can cause the bacteria to proliferate, according to a study published in the journal Pathogens and Disease. The researchers cultured Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes in a polyacrylamide hydrogel permanent filler, a semi-permanent calcium hydroxylapatite filler and a temporary hyaluronic acid filler. Prophylactic antibiotics prevented bacteria from forming on the biofilms in the gels, but in the cases where the bacteria did form, successive treatments with high doses of antibiotic were ineffective.

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