Up to one-third of very low birth weight infants who developed necrotizing enterocolitis received a red blood cell (RBC) transfusion within 48 hours prior to the onset of symptoms. In this prospective observational study, mean postprandial mesenteric oxygenation significantly declined in infants fed during RBC transfusion, which may increase the risk for mesenteric ischemia and the development of RBC transfusion-necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants.

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