New Jersey needs to pursue a range of policy priorities to close health care gaps in the state and prevent 6,400 avoidable deaths per year, according to a report from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Equitable access to safe, affordable and stable housing, improved access to healthy food in communities and schools, and expanded access to high-quality early education are among the recommendations to support better health.
No inherited predisposition to stillbirth transmitted from mother to daughter was found in this study.
A worryingly low proportion of US adults free from chronic conditions receive any lifestyle advice. Lifestyle modification advice as prescribed by health care providers should be widely implemented, with a goal to increase preventive efforts. These sustainable strategies could work to reduce chronic condition burdens. There is a dire need for lifestyle modification support to be made available to the uninsured population through community engagement.
This national study assessed substance use disorder prevalence among individuals with hearing loss, compared with those without hearing loss. Authors found hearing loss to be associated with substance use disorders among those aged 49 years and younger. For the group aged 35 to 49 years, hearing loss increased the likelihood of both an alcohol use disorder and a prescription opioid use disorder. In the group aged 18 to 34 years, hearing loss was associated with a greater likelihood of a prescription opioid use disorder.
This study investigated the occurrence of tuberculosis (TB) among inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) users in a 12-year population cohort comprising about 1 million subjects collected from the Korean claims database. A nested case-control study was performed with 1:4 matching for age, sex, and the initiation date of the ICS. There were 17,991 ICS users, and 175 developed TB during the study period. In the nested case-control study, the occurrence of TB was not related to type of ICS, but was related to a higher annual admission rate and a higher comorbidity score. The risk of TB was higher in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) than in those with asthma (OR: 2.31, CI 95%: 1.39-3.38, p= 0.0011) after adjusting for covariates.
Resumption of menses is an important milestone in the treatment odyssey of anorexia nervosa. Using bioimpedance analysis, a well-validated, simple, portable, and radiation-free method, this study identified a cut-off point of 21.2% as the total body fat percentage needed for resumption of menses in adolescents with anorexia nervosa.
The authors of this study developed the Decannulation Prediction Tool (DecaPreT) to identify patients with acute brain injuries who can be safely decannulated early in the post-acute course. The study showed that the tool can valuably predict the possibility of decannulation in patients with severe dysphagia secondary to ABI. The tool, purely based on bedside clinical evaluation, can be applied by trained personnel in a few minutes in any post-acute setting, contributing to a better clinical management of patients with ABI.
Central line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSIs) have been a major cause of hospital-acquired infections; thus, CLABSIs have been a main target of efforts to reduce hospital-acquired infections. This retrospective cohort study found a significant decrease in hospital-acquired infections, both for CLABSIs and non-CLABSIs, in Canadian NICUs from 2010 through 2016. There was an associated significant decrease in the duration of central catheter usage, which may account for the reduction in CLABSI rates. This study highlights the importance of strengthening existing infection-reduction approaches and developing novel approaches to prevent both CLABSIs and non-CLABSIs.
The introduction of gallium-68 PSMA PET/CT in an Australian hospital was associated with a 45.7% and 95.3% decline in the number of monthly bone scintigraphy studies for prostate cancer staging after six months and five years, respectively, according to a study in the Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology. Researchers also found that the percentage of Ga-68 PSMA PET/CT scans used for primary staging rose from 49% in the first 500 scans to 69% in the last 500 scans.
Canadian researchers found that F-18-DCFPyL PSMA PET/CT resulted in treatment intent and disease staging changes in 65.5% of individuals with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer, most of whom had upstaged disease. The approach, described in the Journal of Nuclear Medicine, also led to management plan changes in 87% of patients, and no serious adverse events were reported.