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MedCrypt researchers evaluated alerts submitted by medical device vendors to the Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team since 2013 and found 47 cybersecurity disclosures, with 70% of 122 vulnerabilities occurring after the FDA's December 2016 release of its Postmarket Management of Cybersecurity in Medical Devices guidance. Forty-two percent of the 85 cybersecurity vulnerabilities disclosed after December 2016 were caused by user authentication, followed by code defect, encryption, operating system, third-party library and system configuration.

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