A report by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine recommends enhanced methods of screening, treatment and prevention to help eliminate hepatitis B and C as a public health concern in the US by the year 2030 and save almost 90,000 lives. The report says a coordinated federal effort is needed, such as expansion of needle exchanges, free access to the hepatitis B vaccine and unrestricted treatment for patients with hepatitis C.
A US Preventive Services Task Force statement in the Journal of the American Medical Association found insufficient evidence to recommend or not recommend universal celiac disease screening for asymptomatic individuals. The statement should prompt researchers to provide data to better identify patients who should undergo screening and treatment for celiac disease, according to an accompanying editorial.
Researchers reported in Nature Communications that they identified and quantified 10,000 proteins in each of 24 patient-derived xenografts of breast tumors of different subtypes, and a "substantial" number are potentially treatment targets. Growing human tumors in laboratory mice mimics the tumors' natural environment and "offers a closer representation of the tumor's growth environment to study cancer drugs than cells growing on a laboratory plastic dish," researcher Matthew Ellis said.
Overweight or obese type 2 diabetes patients who engaged in light walking or light exercise had an improved fat-burning capacity and blood lipid profiles that were less inflammatory and had a greater capacity to fight inflammation, compared with patients who were sedentary, according to a study in The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. Australian researchers evaluated the blood lipid profiles of 21 individuals and recommended "interrupting sitting every 30 minutes with a few minutes of light intensity activity, in addition to regularly taking part in a structured exercise program."
Researchers found an 89.2% reduction in waiting times for diabetic retinopathy screening -- from 158 days to 17 days -- after implementing telemedicine screening. The findings in JAMA Internal Medicine, based on 21,222 patients who underwent screening in 15 primary care clinics across Los Angeles County, Calif., revealed that annual screening rates for diabetic retinopathy also increased in a subset of clinics from 40.6% to 56.9% after the intervention.
A study in Diabetes Care showed that patients with type 2 diabetes and preserved renal function experienced renal metabolism changes that may be beneficial for long-term kidney function following treatment with SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin, while those without diabetes had similar, but smaller changes. Italian researchers used a cohort of 66 diabetes patients and 25 healthy adults with normal glucose tolerance or prediabetes and found an increase in fractional glucose excretion in the fasted and fed states over a range of body mass index and creatinine clearance rates after 28 days of chronic therapy.
A study in Obesity Reviews showed that there are 79 rare genetic syndromes tied to obesity. Canadian researchers reviewed 161 scientific papers and found that 19 of the 79 syndromes identified had the genetics worked out completely, while 27 had been mapped to a chromosomal region, 11 had been partially clarified and 22 lacked identification of specific genes or chromosomal locations.
A total of 1,792 data breaches occurred across the world last year, constituting an 86% increase from 2015 and compromising 1.4 billion data records, according to Gemalto's Breach Level Index. Health care accounted for 28% of targeted breaches, an 11% increase from the previous year, the report said.
Cyberattackers are targeting anonymous file transfer protocol servers to access personally identifiable information and protected health information from medical and dental organizations, the FBI warns. "Make sure nothing but public information goes on that server, because anyone can read anything that goes on it," said SANS Institute Director John Pescatore.
A Chilmark Research report suggests application programming interfaces could let health care organizations provide users and various applications with access to a centralized space for data, which would help resolve data interoperability issues in the industry. The report says health information exchanges "have reached the limits of their effectiveness," and development and integration of analytics would be streamlined by providing direct data access.
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